Come January, we will see some interesting tests of one-party rule as developments last week revealed.

To start with, the notion of a statewide single-payer health care system had seemed to be a matter of details, crafting legislation that would implement it quickly now that the automatic opposition of Republicans has receded into the minority.

But Democrats in both Senate and Assembly who favor such legislation learned last week that some of their more fervent and generous backers, the public sector unions, are not on board.

As Politico reported, labor leaders are concerned that legislation that would help all New Yorkers might not go as far as the health plans that their members now get. Worse yet, they are concerned that a plan that provided health care for all in the state would weaken their bargaining position when it comes to contracts which often center on benefits.

Stories that leaked to Politico said that Democratic leaders were adjusting proposed legislation so it would not infringe on the benefits of union members. Whatever emerges from these private meetings, it will put the newly empowered Democrats in an awkward position. Will they craft legislation that benefits all in the state equally, as they promised, or are some going to be more equal than others in the final bill? If so, they can expect pushback from those who thought that they were voting for a new approach to state government, one that did not so blatantly provide favors in return for substantial campaign donations or other forms of support.

It would not be surprising if this demand from unions turns out to be enough to keep the state from ever enacting a single-payer system, something that Republicans could only postpone.

A similar and formidable challenge will face the new legislators and leaders from another source, the lobbyists who have perpetually been able to influence legislation through both donations and information. It is no secret that although we decide who goes to Albany to represent us, those who are well paid by special interests of all types have an advantage once the session starts.

This year the state Joint Commission on Public Ethics consolidated regulations affecting lobbying, most of them designed to make sure that all activities that sought to influence legislation would be treated equally. But a lawsuit aims to block the regulations under the guise of protecting free speech.

If the courts agree, it will be up to the Legislature to fight back and make sure that lobbyists do not solidify their privileged position.

Finally there is the matter of a pay raise for the Legislature that already is among the highest paid in the nation along with generous staffing and benefits.

The decision on a raise is out of the hands of legislators having been handed to a small committee. If that committee decides to up the pay, will legislators respond by doing what many in the state want, by moving to limit or even ban the ability of representatives to earn outside income?

We need to watch closely at the way our legislators, and especially our new ones, respond to these challenges.